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Dictionary Definition

## Particle Filters

Particle Filters is a simulation technique for tracking moving target distributions and for reducing the computational burden of a dynamic Bayesian analysis. The technique uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo method for sampling in order to obtain an evolving distribution, i.e., to adapt estimates of posterior distributions as new data arrive.

## Partial Residual Plot

Partial Residual Plot is a useful diagnostic tool in multiple regression. It is particularly for assessing whether a non linear term in one or other explanatory variable is needed in the model.

## Partial Questionnaire Design

Partial Questionnaire Design is a procedure used in studies in epidemiology as an alternative to a lengthy questionnaire which can result in lower rates of participation by potential study subjects. Information about the exposure of interest is obtained from all subjects, but information about secondary variables is determined for only a fraction of study subjects.

## Partial likelihood

Partial likelihood is a product of conditional likelihoods, used in certain situations for estimation and hypothesis testing. The basis of estimation in Cox’s proportional hazards model.

## Partial Correlation

Partial Correlation is the correlation between a pair of variables after adjusting for the effect of a third.

## Partial Autocorrelation

Partial Autocorrelation is a measure of the correlation between the observations a particular number of time units apart in a time series, after controlling for the effects of observations at intermediate time points.

## Parsimony Principle

Parsimony Principle is the general principle that among competing models, all of which provide an adequate fit for a set of data, the one with the fewest parameters is to be preferred.

## Parking lot Test

A test for assessing the quality of random number generators.

## Pareto Plot

A bar chart with the bars ordered according to decreasing frequency enhanced by a line joining points above each bar giving the cumulative frequency.

## Parametric Methods

Procedures for testing hypotheses about parameters in a population described by a specified distributional form, often, a normal distribution. Student’s t test is an example of such a method.

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